Wednesday, June 30, 2010

Preliminary Outline of "Jerusalem 101"

Here is my current attempt to organize the information that will be in the book "Jerusalem 101: History, Archaeology, Apologetic." The title itself needs refined. The 600 photos I have selected from 4,000 need to pass through another selection process. I have drawn most of the 50 or so maps and diagrams that will be included. About a third of the information is in text, but my research is not finished. The organization of this material has been a heavy weight that I have struggled with for the last four weeks. This is the best I have come up with so far, but this is far from complete. At some point I have to say, like always, "good enough" and edit it. That day will be in about 3 weeks . . . here is the Table of Context as of right now:

Jerusalem 101: History, Archaeology, Apologetics


Section A: Introduction to Jerusalem
Chapter 1 – Biblical Jerusalem
Chapter 2 – History of Jerusalem
Chapter 3 – Modern Jerusalem: Quarters, Markets, Bazaars, Silwan, Old City
Chapter 4 – The Modern Walls
Chapter 5 – The Modern Gates
Chapter 6 – Archaeology: Periods, People, Process

Section B: Topography
Chapter 7 – Old Ancient Core
Chapter 8 – Kidron Valley
Chapter 9 – Central Valley
Chapter 10 – Hinnom Valley
Chapter 11 – Mount of Olives
Chapter 12 – Mount Moriah
Chapter 13 – Western Hill
Chapter 14 – Opel

Section C: Old Testament
Chapter 15 – Salem, Jebus, Jerusaelm (2000-1000 BC)
Chapter 16 – Jebusite Wall (2000-1000 BC)
Chapter 17 – Gihon Springs
Chapter 18 – City of David (1000 BC)
Chapter 19 – David’s Palace (990 BC)
Chapter 20 – Solomon’s Temple Mount (970 BC)
Chapter 21 – Solomon’s Quarries
Chapter 22 – The Broad Wall (721 BC, Assyrian Destruction of north Israel)
Chapter 23 – Hezekiah’s Tunnel (701 BC, Assyrian Invasion of Judah)
Chapter 24 – Middle Gate (586 BC, Babylonian Destruction
Chapter 25 – Nehemiah’s Wall (445 BC, Exiles Return to Rebuild Temple, City)

Section D: Macabees and Hasmoneans (167-40 BC, Revolt & Independence)
Chapter 26 – Walls
Chapter 27 – Buildings
Chapter 28 – Aqueduct
Chapter 29 – Acra
Chapter 30 – Hasmonean Temple Mount Extension

Section E: New Testament
Chapter 31 – Herod’s Building Projects and Ashlar Stones
Chapter 32 – Herod’s Temple Mount
Chapter 33 – Eastern Wall of Temple
Chapter 34 – Western Wall of Temple
Chapter 35 – Western Wall Tunnels
Chapter 36 – Wilson’s Gate and Wilson’s Arch
Chapter 37 – Barclay’s Gate
Chapter 38 – Robinson’s Arch
Chapter 39 – Western Wall Street
Chapter 40 – Western Wall Shops
Chapter 41 – Southern Wall: Double Gate, Triple Gate, Stair Steps, Single Gate
Chapter 42 – Archaeology on the Ophel (Jerusalem Archaeology Park)
Chapter 43 – Siloam Road
Chapter 44 – Siloam Pool
Chapter 45 – Pool of Bethesda
Chapter 46 – Lazarus’ Tomb
Chapter 47 – Church of the Holy Sepulcher
Chapter 48 – Garden Tomb
Chapter 49 – Fort Antonia
Chapter 50 – Church of Apostles: A Judeo-Christian Synagogue
Chapter 51 – Ciaphas’ House
Chapter 52 – Burnt House, Wohl Museum

Section F: Roman, Muslim and Crusader Periods
Chapter 53 – Events from 135 AD to the Present
Chapter 54 – Citadel
Chapter 55 – Cardo
Chapter 56 – St. Anne’s Church
Chapter 57 – Al Aqsa Mosque
Chapter 58 – Dome of the Rock
Chapter 59 – Muslim Temple Mount

Section G:
Chapter 60 – A Treasure Map
Chapter 61 – The Future of Jerusalem


Toni and Galyn Jerusalem 2010

This purpose of this trip to Jerusalem was to gather information and take photos, but it had moments that made it a nice get-away for a couple married for 29 years.

Tuesday, June 29, 2010

Monday, June 28, 2010

Jerusalem Photos for Bible Study and Church

These are the photos from Jerusalem that I used in church on Sunday and in the Framework Bible School on Monday:

Introduction and History of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher

Galyn Wiemers uses diagrams, maps, video and photos to show the history of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and introduce the locations of Calvary, the tomb of Jesus and other first century tombs preserved in this church. History, archaeology, tradition and academic writings through the centuries provide convincing evidence that this is the location of Jesus' death, burial and resurrection.

Friday, June 25, 2010

Running Around the Old City Walls of Jerusalem

On Monday morning this week at 6:30 I ran around the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem while recording with a video camera. I began in the south west corner and ran east to the southeast corner. I turned left (north) and headed up the steep east side with the walls of the Temple Mount on my left. At the northeast corner of the walls I turned left (west) and ran up over Mount Moriah down into the Central Valley and up the Western Hill to the northwest corner of the city walls. Here I turned left (south) and headed down to the Joppa gate on the west side of the city then up Mount Zion back to where I started at the southwest corner. Here are four video clips of my run Monday morning. In the video I provide some explanation and discussion of the wall, the eight gates and the sites I run past. Maps of the run and labels of directions and locations are in the video.

Thursday, June 24, 2010

Tunnels Under the Stepped Street to Siloam Pool

Sunday morning I walked up from the Pool of Siloam through the tunnels under the stepped street leading from the Temple Mount to the Pool of Siloam. These tunnels were the gutter or the sewer for rain water to make its way out of the city. Here is the video:

Tuesday, June 15, 2010

A Few Sites We Will Target Beginning Tomorrow

(Click for a larger image)
A- Entrance to Bethesda
B- Site of Pool of Israel
C- Ecce Homo Arch
D- Site of Fort Antonia
E- West face of 1st tower, the channel of an aqueduct marked by irregular covering slabs
F- Small section walled in center at ground level enshrines a sloping glacis
G- Wall follows rim of quarry which extends across road to bus station
H- Under Damascus Gate Bridge - Tenth Roman Legion Mark
I- Three doors, Rich lady named Tansuq, died 1398
J- Tomb for rich lady Tansuq
K- Hospice of the wise blind judge from 1267 which was made a prison by Ottomans
L - Road over Wilson's Arch
M- Tomb of Lady Turkan from the east, inscription of father/grandfather, Khans Golden Horde
N- Roman Pillar - 200 AD - Inscription honoring Marcus Maximus, gov. of Judea or 10th Legion
O- Hezekiah's Pool
P- Entrance to Hezekiah's Pool through Coptic Khan - ask to see through windows also view from
Petra Hotel and NE Tower of citadel
AA- Restored Cardo Maximus
BB- Cardo Maximus
CC-Cardo Maximus
DD- View ancient walls underground - 3 pieces from 600's, part of Middle Gate of Jer. 39:3, 586 BC
EE- View Crusader Shop fronts underground
FF- View Crusader Markets Underground - Crusaders built arched covers over Byzantine Cardo
GG- Access to the roofs
HH- 700 BC walls and Cardo
II - 600 BC Tower - on north wall in line with DD
JJ - 700 BC Broad Wall from Neh. 3:8 connects with HH
KK - Burnt House of High Priest in Upper City
LL- Wohl Archaeological Museum - Herodian Houses
MM - The Column
NN- Apse of the Nea Church
OO - Herodian Paving
PP - Roman Milestone
QQ-Slight projection of Ashlar
RR- Remains of Double Gate
SS- Straight Joint
TT- Burnt Arches
UU- Western Boor Jamb of Triple Gate
VV-Council House
WW- Ritual Bath House
XX- Inscription above Double Gate
YY- Trumpeter's Stone
ZZ- Ashlar Stone with projection used for pulling Ashlar which was not removed (3 rows up)
AAA- Foundation stones just north of Golden Gate with Herodian stones about #11-13. Offset just north of Gate
BBB- Excavation on Mount Zion of Hasmonean Wall
CCC- Wall from 900's BC
DDD- Stepped Street to Siloam Pool
EEE- Ancient Tunnel under Siloam Street
FFF-Huge Canaanite Fortress
GGG- Siloam Pool
HHH- Herodian Wall
III- Hasmonean Wall
JJJ- Tower
KKK- Baulk - open archaeological trench
LLL- Herodian Wall
MMM- Herodian Tower
NNN- City Gate
OOO- Turkish Tower
PPP- Midieval Tower

Suq el Qattanin = Shopping Arcade

Watch for Toni and myself on the Western Wall web-cam here

Galyn Wiemers

Wednesday, June 9, 2010

History of Jerusalem


  • 3500 BC - Jerusalem is first settled on the Ophel above the Gihon Spring
BRONZE AGE (3200-1200)
  • 2000 BC - Abraham meets with the Melchizedek, the king of Jerusalem, which is called Salem
  • 1800 BC - Jerusalem is mentioned in Egyptian Texts and called Rasalimum
  • 1400 BC - Joshua kills Adoni-zedek, the Jebusite king of Jerusalem but does not capture the the city of Jerusalem which is also called Jebus.
  • 1400 BC - Jerusalem appears in diplomatic correspondences called the Amarna Letters as Urusalim
IRON AGE (1200-539 BC)
  • 1000 BC - David takes Jerusalem from the Jebusites
  • 960 BC - Solomon builds the First Temple
  • 712 BC - Hezekiah cuts the tunnel through the bedrock under the City of David from the Gihon Spring to the Pool of Siloam
  • 586 BC - Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians destroy Jerusalem and the Temple. Jews taken captive to Babylon.
PERSIAN AGE (539-322)
  • 537 BC - Cyrus the Persian allows Jews to return to rebuild Jerusalem.
  • 516 BC - Second Temple, or Zerubbabel's Temple, is completed
  • 445 BC - Nehemiah rebuilds the walls
  • 332 BC - Alexander the Great and the Greeks conquers Israel from the Persians and takes Jerusalem peacefully
  • 320 BC - Ptolemy I captures Jerusalem and Egyptian rule of Jerusalem begins
  • 198 BC - Seleucids in Syria capture Jerusalem and Syrian rule of Jerusalem begins
  • 168 BC - Antiochus IV Epiphanes desecrates the Temple in Jerusalem and the Maccabean revolt soon begins
  • 164 BC - Judas Maccabeus recaptures Jerusalem
  • 141 BC - Simon Maccabeus (Judas' brother) establishes Judea as an independent state. The Maccabee family, called Hasmoneans, begin to rule as kings in Jerusalem
  • 63 BC - Roman General Pompey captures Jerusalem for Rome
  • 40 BC - Herod the Great is appointed king in Jerusalem by Rome
  • 18 BC- Herod begins the rebuilding of the Temple
  • 10 BC - Temple is dedicated, but construction continues on Temple until 63 AD
  • 66 AD - Jewish revolt against Rome begins
  • 70 AD - Jerusalem falls to Romans and the city and Temple are destroyed and burnt
  • 132 AD - Second Jewish revolt against Rome begins - Bar Kochba takes Jerusalem from Rome
  • 135 AD - Roman Emperor Hadrian puts down the second Jewish revolt and rebuilds the city calling it Aelia Capitolina. A pagan temple for Jupiter (Zeus) was built on the Temple Mount and Jews were forbidden to enter the city.
  • 326 AD - Constantine's mother, Helena, visits Jerusalem and establishes the Christian holy sites. Many churches are built.
  • 335 AD - Church of the Holy Sepulcher is built
  • 361 AD -Emperior Julian the Apostate announces to the Jews that they are allowed to return to Jerusalem and begin rebuilding the Temple.
  • 438 AD - Jews are allowed to live in Jerusalem
  • 614 AD - Persians conquer Jerusalem under General Shahrbaraz. Churches are destroyed, including the Church of the Holy Sepulcher which is burnt. The Jews driven out of Jerusalem
  • 629 AD - The Byzantine Empire (Christian) recaptures Jerusalem from the Persians under Emperor Heraclius


  • 638 AD - The Muslim Caliph Omar, or Umar. (The caliph is the poitical leader of Islam) takes Jerusalem from the Byzantine empire six years after Mohammed's death.
  • 661 - Umayyad dynasty begins and continues until 750
  • 691 - Dome of the Rock completed by Caliph Abd al-Malilk
  • 701 - Al-Aqsa Mosue is completed by Caliph al-Walid
  • 750 - Abassid dynasty begins and contineus until 974
  • 878 - The Tulunids take the city
  • 904 - The Abassids retake the city
  • 939 - The Ikhshidid take the city
  • 969 - The Fatimids take the city under General Gawhar Al-Siqilli
  • 1010 - Synagogues and churches in Jerusalem are destroyed by Caliph al-Hakim
  • 1077 - Seljuk Turks conquer Jerusalem
  • 1096 - Pope Urban calls for a crusade to take back the Holy Land
  • 1099 - Godfrey of Bouillon captures Jerusalem for the Christians. Baldwin I is named King of Jerusalem. A great slaughter of Jews and Muslims by the Christians followed the capture of the city.
AYYUBID PERIOD (1187-1250)
  • 1187 - General Saladin takes Jerusalem from the Crusaders. Jews and Muslims return and settle in the city.
  • 1192 - Crusaders fail to take Jerusalem but the Muslim General Saladin allows Christians to worship at their Holy Sites
  • 1212 - Three hundred rabbis from England and France settle in Jerusalem
  • 1219 - Sultan Malilk-al-Muattam razes city walls
  • 1229 - Crusaders briefly recapture Jerusalem twice
  • 1244 - Crusader era ends when Khawarizmian Turks capture Jerusalem.
MAMLUK PERIOD (1250-1516)
  • 1250 - Muslim caliph dismantles walls of Jerusalem
  • 1260 - Mameluks of Egypt capture Jerusalem
  • 1347 - Mamelukes capture Jerusalem a second time
OTTOMAN PERIOD (1516-1917)
  • 1517 - Ottomans peacefully takeover Jerusalem by Sultan Selim
  • 1537 - Sultan Suleiman "the Magnificent" rebuilds the city walls which had been in ruins since 1219.
  • 1541 - Jerusalem's Eastern or Golden Gate is sealed to prevent the Jewish Messiah's entrance
  • 1542 - Damascus gate built
  • 1700 - Rabbi Yehuda He'Hassid arrives in Jerusalem and begins building the "Hurva" Synagogue
  • 1705 - Restrictions imposed on the Jews in Jerusalem
  • 1831 - Sultan Mehemet Ali of Egypt conquers teh city
  • 1838 - First British consulate is opened in Jerusalem.
  • 1840 - The Ottoman Turks retake the city
  • 1844 - Census shows 7,120 Jews, 5,760 Muslims, 3,390 Christians
  • 1860 - First Jewish settlement outside the walls of the city
  • 1898 - World Zionist Organization founder, Dr. Theodor Herzl, visits Jerusalem. Dr. Herzl meets German Kaiser Wilhelm outside the city walls
MODERN PERIOD (1917-present)
  • 1917 - British take Jerusalem from the Ottoman Empire and General Allenby enters Jerusalem
  • 1947 - United Nations Resolution recommending the partitioni of Israel
  • 1948 - British Mandate and control of Jerusalem ends and the State of Israel begins
  • 1948 - Israel War of Liberation, Jewish Quarter in Old City falls
  • 1949 - Jerusalem is divided in the Israel-TransJordan Armistice Agreement. Jerusalem divided between two countries. Jerusalem is declared capital of Israel
  • 1967 - Jerusalem reunited when Old City is captured. Jordan sends shells and mortars to begin the Six Day War which results in Israeli troops capturing the Old City